ACLS Cases Respiratory Arrest

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Individuals who are determined to be in respiratory arrest require attention right away, as they usually have ineffective breathing patterns that need immediate attention. Causes of respiratory arrest are varied; they can include (but are not limited to) cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest. The BLS or the ACLS Survey can be used to resuscitated individuals who are showcasing signs of respiratory arrest.

Take Note

When an individual is having trouble breathing or isn’t breathing at all, he or she may have respiratory arrest.

BLS Survey

ACLS BLS Survey Algorithm

Figure 20

ACLS Survey

ACLS Survey A-B-C-D

Figure 21

Type of Ventilation

ACLS Types of Ventilation - Advanced & Basic

Table 4

As can be seen in Table 4,

basic airways are listed in the right column while advanced airways are listed in the left column. Only experienced providers should administer the placement of OPAs and NPAs, even if they are categorized as basic airways. An ACLS certification does not offer enough training to administer the insertion of advanced airways, which demands specialized training. However, all ACLS providers should be aware of how to use advanced airways that have already been placed, even if they are not equipped with the training to place them. It is crucial to maintain proper airway management when administering ACLS.

When performing CPR, the individual must be lying on their back, as gravity can cause various parts of the mouth (including tissues of the throat, the tongue, and the jaw) to fall and close the airway. Keeping the airway in an unconscious individual open can be difficult, and it demands external support.

First, in all airway intervention the airway must be opened, by pushing the forehead back while raising the chin upward (Figure 22). By doing this, the provider creates a straight and unobstructed path from the trachea to the nose.

When dealing with individuals who might have neck injuries, it is important to protect the cervical spine, and to open the airway in these circumstances you must thrust the jaw forward (Figure 23). Standard practice may call for a cervical collar, but in BLS or ACLS, cervical collars are discouraged as they may tighten the airway, thus obstructing efforts at resuscitation. An open airway must always be maintained, no matter what basic airway is used. Keep the head steady and ask for help from those around you to keep the open airway controlled.

ACLS Airway Chin Lift

Figure 22

ACLS Airway Jaw Thrust

Figure 23

Take Note

Giving too many breaths per minute or too many large breaths (also known as over-ventilating) can be harmful for the patient, as it will decrease venous return to the heart, increase intrathoracic pressure, diminish cardiac output, and cause individuals to vomit.

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