- Choose a location where there will be few to no interruptions, if at all possible.
- Keep the victim out of bodies of water and pat him or her dry, if applicable. Drowned individuals should be taken as far as possible from all bodies of water, including puddles, gutters, or pools.
- As a rescuer, you have to make sure that you stay fit to carry out the demands of BLS/CPR.
Assess the Person
- Assess the person’s consciousness by shaking and talking to him or her.
- Assess the person’s breathing patterns. Be aware of agonal breathing, which is an interrupted breathing pattern that is not indicative of recovery.
- Do not leave the patient alone. Get someone else to call for help or retrieve an AED.
- In the event that there are no other individuals in your vicinity, proceed by checking the patient’s pulse and breathing while simultaneously contacting help. (The ILCOR points out that mobile phone now come with built-in speakerphone capabilities, allowing rescuers to simultaneously attend to the patient while calling for help.)
- Examine the patient’s pulse.
- Perform chest compressions and start resuscitation.
- Use the AED when available.
- Monitor the carotid pulse, which can usually be found at the side of the neck. Spend no more than 5 to 10 seconds in looking for a pulse. In the event that you do not find a pulse, start CPR immediately with 30 chest compressions and two breaths. .
- Place the heel of one hand on the lower part of the sternum in the middle of the chest .
- Place the other hand on top of the positioned hand .
- Keep your arms straight and press down with both arms . The prescribed compressions should be 2 inches into the person’s chest, at around 100 to 120 compressions per minute.
- Between each compression, expect the chest to recoil, which means that you should allow the chest to return to its natural position. Constant pressure on the chest can prevent the heart from fully recovering, making CPR techniques less effective.
- After 30 compressions, pause and execute resuscitation:
a. Place your hand on the person’s forehead and slowly tilt the head back.
b. Place your index and middle fingers on the person’s lower jaw and lift.
c. If you think the person has a neck injury, refrain from head-tilt and use the jaw-thrust instead.
d. When performing the jaw-thrust, lift the lower jaw with both hands and move the jaw forward. In the event that the patient’s mouth is sealed closed, gently pry it open using your lower thumb.
- Pay attention to the chest as you give breaths to your patient. These should be delivered over a period of one second. Repeat the procedure in with the succeeding breaths.
- Quickly alternate between breaths and chest compression to minimize time interruptions.